A casino is a public place where a variety of games of chance can be played and gambling is the primary activity engaged in by patrons. The typical casino adds a host of luxuries to help attract players, such as restaurants, free drinks and dramatic scenery, but there have certainly been less lavish places that house gambling activities that would still technically be called casinos.
The earliest American casinos were built in Nevada and capitalized on the large numbers of people who traveled there to gamble. When other states legalized gambling in the 1980s and 1990s, casinos grew rapidly. They began to appear on American Indian reservations, which were not subject to state antigambling laws, and in cities such as Atlantic City and New Jersey. Some casinos also opened on riverboats and on cruise ships.
In addition to gambling, casinos offer food and drink, shows and other entertainment. Some even offer a full range of hotel services. The majority of casinos in the United States are incorporated and are owned by private companies, but there are a few government-owned casinos. Some are operated by Native American tribes and a few by religious organizations.
Many casinos have a wide selection of table and slot machines. Some offer keno and bingo, too. There is an increasing trend toward electronic gaming devices that have the appearance of traditional video games but use advanced technology to determine winning combinations. Casinos are beginning to offer these new devices more frequently because they provide a more immersive experience for customers.
While it is possible to win money at the tables and slots, most visitors to casinos do not do so. They play because it is fun and entertaining. Gambling is a social activity, and many casino patrons talk to each other while they are playing. Some players shout encouragement to other players, and waiters circulate with alcoholic and nonalcoholic drinks. Most casinos are designed around noise and excitement.
The typical casino patron is a forty-six-year-old woman from a household with above average income, according to surveys by Roper Reports GfK NOP and the U.S. Gaming Panel by TNS. These studies interviewed 2,000 adults and included face-to-face interviews with some of them. Other research has indicated that the average casino visitor has a high school diploma or GED certificate, and nearly half of all casino guests have some college education.
The casino business is a high-risk endeavor, and it has attracted organized crime groups that have been involved in illegal drug dealing and extortion. The mob has provided the funds to build and maintain casinos, and in return, they have gotten sole or partial ownership of some of them, plus control over personnel. The mobsters have been known to manipulate gambling games, intimidate casino employees and steal from their own businesses. In the early 1950s, when legitimate businessmen were reluctant to invest in casinos because of their seamy image, mobster money flowed steadily into Reno and Las Vegas.